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# Measurements, waste factors and conversions

Despite EU regulations, the building and timber trades continue to use a combination of imperial and metric measurements. This can be not only a little confusing, but can also lead to some drastic calculation errors.

To make life simple, it is best to use one or the other.

For imperial we use inches (“), feet (‘), cubic feet (ft3) and square feet (ft2).
For metric we use millimetres (mm), metres (mt), cubic metres (m3) and square metres (m2). The timber trade does not tend to use centimetres.

Wood is sold in variety of ways:

• Rough sawn wood is normally sold by cubic volume (ft3 or m3).
• Machined sections are normally sold by the running length (ft or mt).
• Flooring and some cladding is normally sold by the square area (ft2 or m2).

### Calculating volume

A cubic foot = width in inches x thickness in inches / 144 x length in feet.
A cubic metre = width in mm x thickness in mm / 1,000,000 x length in metres.

(The width of a waney edge board is calculated by taking the average of three measurements along the length of the board including half the wane on each edge.)

### Calculating area

A square foot = length in feet x width in feet.
A square metre = length in metres x width in metres.

### Waste factors

It is important to understand what a waste factor is and how it will impact your budget. A waste factor is essentially the amount of waste wood that you will have to pay for but cannot, for one reason or another, use in your project. A waste factor is normally expressed as a percentage (%) of the required amount.

A waste factor can be caused by:

• Natural defects in the wood.
• Distortion of the wood.
• Non-uniform shape and size of sawn planks.
• Cutting the bark and sap off a waney edge plank.
• Cutting fixed lengths out of random lengths.
• Trimming ends.

Recommended waste factors:

• Cutting a specification from waney edge planks (planks with the bark still attached). Add 100%.
• Cutting a specification from thick waney edge planks 2 ½” – 4”. Add 120%.

### Exact conversions

 Feet to metres x by 3.281 Cubic feet to cubic metres x by 35.315 Square feet to square metres x by 10.76

### Rough conversions

 Imperial Metric 1″ 25mm 2″ 50mm 2½” 63mm 3″ 75mm 4″ 100mm 5″ 125mm 6″ 150mm 1′ 0.3mt 2′ 0.6mt 3′ 0.9mt 4′ 1.2mt 5′ 1.5mt 6′ 1.8mt 7′ 2.1mt 8′ 2.4mt 9′ 2.7mt 10′ 3.0mt 11′ 3.3mt 12′ 3.6mt 13′ 3.9mt 14′ 4.2mt
 Imperial Metric 1″ 25mm 2″ 50mm 2½” 63mm 3″ 75mm 4″ 100mm 5″ 125mm 6″ 150mm
 Imperial Metric 1′ 0.3mt 2′ 0.6mt 3′ 0.9mt 4′ 1.2mt 5′ 1.5mt 6′ 1.8mt 7′ 2.1mt
 Imperial Metric 8′ 2.4mt 9′ 2.7mt 10′ 3.0mt 11′ 3.3mt 12′ 3.6mt 13′ 3.9mt 14′ 4.2mt